NOAH

Habitat Atlas

The NOAH Data Portal for Marine Geodata in the North Sea

The Habitat Atlas provides access to geodata in terms of digital maps covering a variety of physical, biogeochemical and biological properties of the sea floor in the Germann Bight (North Sea). The underlying geodatabase includes results from models as well as data sets of historic and new observations that are being compiled, evaluated and further processed within the course of the NOAH project.

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Fishing Pressure

Illustration

Fine-scale Swept Area Ratio (2012-2016)

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

The footprint of bottom trawling was estimated from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) data, linked to the corresponding logbook information (German fleet) or the European fleet register (international fleet), respectively. It is quantified as annual swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the cumulative area touched by trawls and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach, i.e. the resolution depends on the amount of available information (position data) within a spatial grid. We considered the gear-specific footprints of four major gear groups: otter trawls, demersal seines, beam trawls and dredges. Further the swept area ratio is averaged over a period from 2012-2016 and thus represents the overall picture of fishing pressure to the seafloor in those years.

Illustration

Fishing Effort Distribution of Large Beam Trawlers in 2012

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

International fishing effort distribution in 2012 was calculated for large beam trawlers (>221kW, >24m) in the German EEZ of the North Sea. It was quantified as swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the trawled area over one year and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. The swept area was calculated from data from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) using the approximate width of the first gear of the ship, taken from the European Fleet register. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach following Gerritsen et al. 2013 (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 523-531), with approximately 3552km2 (corresponding to a resolution of 1 deg x0.5 deg at 55 deg N) as the coarsest and approximately 3.5km2 as the finest resolution of grid cells, whereas the resolution depends on the amount of information (GPS data from fishing vessels) within a spatial grid.

Illustration

Fishing Effort Distribution of Large Beam Trawlers in 2011

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

International fishing effort distribution in 2011 was calculated for large beam trawlers (>221kW, >24m) in the German EEZ of the North Sea. It was quantified as swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the trawled area over one year and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. The swept area was calculated from data from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) using the approximate width of the first gear of the ship, taken from the European Fleet register. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach following Gerritsen et al. 2013 (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 523-531), with approximately 3552km2 (corresponding to a resolution of 1 deg x0.5 deg at 55 deg N) as the coarsest and approximately 3.5km2 as the finest resolution of grid cells, whereas the resolution depends on the amount of information (GPS data from fishing vessels) within a spatial grid.

Illustration

Fishing Effort Distribution of Small Beam Trawlers in 2011

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

International fishing effort distribution in 2011 was calculated for small beam trawlers (<221kW, <24m) in the German EEZ of the North Sea. It was quantified as swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the trawled area over one year and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. The swept area was calculated from data from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) using the approximate width of the first gear of the ship, taken from the European Fleet register. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach following Gerritsen et al. 2013 (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 523-531), with approximately 3552km2 (corresponding to a resolution of 1 deg x0.5 deg at 55 deg N) as the coarsest and approximately 3.5km2 as the finest resolution of grid cells, whereas the resolution depends on the amount of information (GPS data from fishing vessels) within a spatial grid.

Illustration

Swept Area Ratio and interannual Variation (2012-2016)

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

The footprint of bottom trawling was estimated from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) data, linked to the corresponding logbook information (German fleet) or the European fleet register (international fleet), respectively. It is quantified as annual swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the cumulative area touched by trawls and the size of the respective grid cell (0.05°*0.05°). Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. We considered the gear-specific footprints of four major gear groups: otter trawls, demersal seines, beam trawls and dredges. Further the swept area ratio is averaged over a period from 2012-2016 and thus represents the overall picture of fishing pressure to the seafloor in those years.The second map illustrates the coefficient of variation of annual swept area ratios from 2012-2016. It thus corresponds to the map “Footprint of bottom trawling in the German EEZ of the North Sea (2012-2016)” and represents the interannual variation in fishing pressure by bottom trawling.

Illustration

Sensitivity Index for Demersal Fish 2009

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

The SI shown here is based on fish data from a beam trawl survey in November/December 2009 covering the German EEZ of the North Sea. Altogether 75 stations were sampled and a SI was calculated for each identified species. The SI is based on species life history traits that provide a good indication about the sensitivity of a species to human activities.

Illustration

Fishing Effort Distribution of Small Beam Trawlers in 2012

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

International fishing effort distribution in 2012 was calculated for small beam trawlers (<221kW, <24m) in the German EEZ of the North Sea. It was quantified as swept area ratio, which is the ratio between the trawled area over one year and the size of the respective grid cell. Thus, a swept area ratio of 1 means that an area equivalent to the size of the grid cell was fished over one year. The swept area was calculated from data from Vessel monitoring by satellite (VMS) using the approximate width of the first gear of the ship, taken from the European Fleet register. Cell sizes were assigned using the nested grid approach following Gerritsen et al. 2013 (ICES J. Mar. Sci. 70: 523-531), with approximately 3552km2 (corresponding to a resolution of 1 deg x0.5 deg at 55 deg N) as the coarsest and approximately 3.5km2 as the finest resolution of grid cells, whereas the resolution depends on the amount of information (GPS data from fishing vessels) within a spatial grid.

Illustration

Disturbance Indicator

Thuenen-Institut Hamburg (TI)

In the German EEZ of the North Sea, we distinguished ten benthic communities and six international fishing fleets(averaged over the years 2005-2008). From this we produced spatially explicit estimates of benthic disturbance, which was computed as theratio between relative local mortality by benthic trawling and the recovery potential after a trawl event. Results showed great differences in spatial patterns of benthic disturbance when accounting for different environmental impacts of the respective fleets.Here, the so-called weighted DI is shown, where the largest impact to the searfloor is assigned to large beam trawlers, targeting flatfish,mainly sole.

Biogeochemistry

Illustration

δ15N Distribution

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

The ratio of two stable isotopes (14N, 15N; expressed as δ15N relative to air N2 = 0 ‰) in sediments reflects the origin and history of nitrogen in the water column. Sedimentary nitrogen traces the δ15N of dissolved nitrate and sedimenting of organic matter. In the German Bight and EEZ, the dissolved nitrate originates from 2 main sources: Nitrate discharged by rivers draining cultivated catchments has high δ15N values (~ 9 ‰) characteristic of river loads causing eutrophication of coastal areas. Nitrate in water masses of Atlantic origin advected into the German Bight has low δ15N values (~5 ‰). The map of δ15N values in surface sediments (0-1 cm) collected in the German Bight and German EEZ depicts the halo of high δ15N resulting from river nitrate.

Illustration

MOSSCO Surface Chlorophyll

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

This parameter describe the volumetric mass concentration [in units of mg m-3] of phytoplankton (algal) pigment chlorophyll a in the model’s surface layer. Chlorophyll a in photoautotrophic phytoplankton is used to "harvest" sunlight energy and drive all cellular processes, especially the build-up of new biomass. In a photoacclimative model such as MAECS, cells adapt their chlorophyll to biomass ratio to ambient light concentration: when there is a lot of light (in summer and near the ocean surface), cells need less chlorophyll per biomass than in darker conditions, such as in spring and in deeper water layers.

Illustration

TOC concentration [%] < 20 μm Grain Size Fraction

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Percent of TOC_20 μm is the content of organic carbon on the sediment grain-size fraction < 20 μm. The map shows the spatial distribution of %TOC_20 μm in the extended German Bight which includes the German EEZ. The map was generated from about 1200 samples by kriging with an external drift using %mud as external variable. The vast majority of TOC data was measured by BSH. Other than %TOC, the organic content on the unfractionated sediment, %TOC_20 μm is not positively, but negatively correlated with %mud: %TOC_20μm low in muddy areas and high in sandy areas. An exception is the muddy sand area NW of Dogger Bank in the NW corner of the map where %TOC_20 μm is comparatively high.

Illustration

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) [%]

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) distribution in surface sediments of the southern North Sea. The map was generated from more than 3000 data points compiled from various sources by interpolation using Co-Kriging with percentage mud as external variable. Mapping of TOC provides important background information for spatial analyses of organism assemblages, contaminant loadings and benthic remineralisation processes.

Benthos

Illustration

Abundane of the Common Sea star Asterias Rubens

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

The map shows the total abundance (ind. / 500 m²) of the common sea star Asterias rubens from 1998 to 2014 (365 stations). The common sea star Asterias rubens is the most common starfish in the north-east Atlantic. Asterias rubens is an important benthic predator and scavenger, which is relatively robust towards fishing disturbance.

Illustration

Epibenthic Biomass

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

The map shows the total biomass of epifauna from 1998 to 2014. Biomass can be considered as a simple indicator of the productivity of an area. Total biomass of epifauna is higher in shallow, coastal areas compared to deeper, offshore areas.

Illustration

Epibenthic Abundance

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

The map shows the total abundance of epifauna from 1998 to 2014. Total abundance of epifauna is higher in shallow, coastal areas compared to deeper, offshore areas.

Illustration

Epibenthic Diversity (Shannon-Wiener Index H`)

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

The map shows the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H`) for benthic epifauna. The Shannon index is a popular diversity index in ecology taking into account the number of species as well as the evenness of species (how close in numbers each species in an environment are). The index is higher with increasing number of species and with decreasing dominance of only few species.

Illustration

Epibenthic Communities

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

Data from nearly 400 stations were compiled for the study.Eight distinct epibenthic communities were found in the south-eastern North Sea by using multivariate analysis. Distribution modelling with eight environmental variables (bottom temperature and salinity, temperature differences between summer and winter, mud content of sediments, maximum bottom shear stress, stratification, water depth and annual primary production) and one human pressure (fishing effort) was used to extrapolate probable spatial distributions and to identify associated habitat characteristics of the communities in the south-eastern North Sea. Three large epibenthic communities “Coast”,“Oyster-ground” and “Tail End”reflect a gradual habitat change from the coast towards offshore regions, expressed in gradients of bottom salinity, seasonal temperature differences and stratification as the dominant environmental factors. Five smaller communities (“Amrum Bank”, “Frisian Front”, “Deeps”,“Dogger Bank” and “Dogger Slope”) outline specific habitats in the south-eastern North Sea. The “Dogger Slope”community has not been recognized before, but has a predicted spatial extent of 7118 km2.

Illustration

Abundance of the Sea Squirt Ascidiella spp.

Senckenberg Gesellschaft fuer Naturforschung (Senckenberg)

The map shows the total abundance (ind. / 500 m²) of the sea squirt Ascidiella spp. from 1998 to 2014 (365 stations). Sea squirts or ascidians are sessile, sac-like invertebrate filter-feeders. Sessile species such as ascidians are known to be sensitive to trawling disturbance.

Substrate

Illustration

Porosity of Marine Sediments

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Sediment grain size data was taken to assess porosity of North Sea surface sediments from the median (D50) of the particle size distributions. Results were mapped using Kriging technique to help understand the spatial dynamics of sediment diagenesis and consolidation.

Illustration

NOAH Sediment Grain Size Cluster

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Sediment classification scheme for the German Bight build on cluster analysis of grain size distribution parameter median, sorting, skewness, mud and gravel content. Colour indices indicate homogenous sediments in grid cells of 1.5 nm within the inner German Bight and 3nm further offshore. In the NOAH project the classification scheme is applied to upscale local measurements to habitats of comparable substrate type.

Illustration

Gravel content [%]

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

North Sea data on grain size analyses of surface sediments were compiled from various sources and mapped for the gravel content (fraction >2000 µm) using Kriging technique. The gravel content was used as a covariate to determine habitat substrate type.

Illustration

2006 North Sea Sand Ripple Formation by Currents

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Hydrodynamic model output was used to map the frequency of occurrence of current-induced active sand ripples at the sea floor of the North Sea for the year 2006. Formation and persistence of active ripples have a meaning for advective flow within the sediment and thus the ventilation of pore water with oxygen.

Illustration

2006 North Sea Sand Ripple Formation by Waves

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Hydrodynamic model output was used to map the height of wave-induced active sand ripples at the sea floor of the North Sea for the year 2006. Formation and persistence of active ripples have a meaning for advective flow within the sediment and thus the ventilation of pore water with oxygen.

Illustration

Sediment Sorting

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

North Sea data on grain size analyses of surface sediments were compiled from various sources and mapped for sorting using Kriging technique.The sorting parameter was used as a covariate to determine habitat substrate types.

Illustration

Mud Content [%]

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

North Sea data on grain size analyses of surface sediments were compiled from various sources and mapped for the mud content (fraction <63 µm) using Kriging technique. The mud content was used as a covariate to determine habitat substrate type and is further related sediment permeability, TOC and contaminant loadings.

Illustration

TOC concentration [%] < 20 μm Grain Size Fraction

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Percent of TOC_20 μm is the content of organic carbon on the sediment grain-size fraction < 20 μm. The map shows the spatial distribution of %TOC_20 μm in the extended German Bight which includes the German EEZ. The map was generated from about 1200 samples by kriging with an external drift using %mud as external variable. The vast majority of TOC data was measured by BSH. Other than %TOC, the organic content on the unfractionated sediment, %TOC_20 μm is not positively, but negatively correlated with %mud: %TOC_20μm low in muddy areas and high in sandy areas. An exception is the muddy sand area NW of Dogger Bank in the NW corner of the map where %TOC_20 μm is comparatively high.

Illustration

Permeability of Marine Sediments - German Bight

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

As the determinant of solute and particle fluxes through sediments, quantifying sediment permeability is a vital step in understanding of the exchange phenomena between the water column and sediment as permeability determines the mode and intensity of solute and particle fluxes. Reliable estimates of sediment permeability are therefore a constraint on the accurate implementation of benthic biogeochemical models. This is particularly true for the North Sea, as field data are scarce and available grain-size-based models fail to represent the full range of sediment types. In this study, we combine measurements of sediment permeability and grain size analysis with a generic permeability model to establish a high-resolution permeability map of the sediment in the German Bight (North Sea). Our results show a good agreement between model-based prediction and measurements of permeability, even for a wide range of permeability values.

Illustration

Permeability of Marine Sediments

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Sediment grain size data were taken to assess sediment permeability (Kp) and spatially classify the sea bed of the North Sea accordingly into the three groups "no advection", "advection potentially possible" and "advection definitely possible". Information on permeability helps to unravel the role of North Sea permeable sands for particle trapping and organic matter degradation.

Illustration

Median Grainsize

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

North Sea data on grain size analyses of surface sediments were compiled from various sources and mapped for the median of the particle size distribution using Kriging technique. The median was used as a covariate to determine habitat substrate type.

Illustration

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) [%]

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) distribution in surface sediments of the southern North Sea. The map was generated from more than 3000 data points compiled from various sources by interpolation using Co-Kriging with percentage mud as external variable. Mapping of TOC provides important background information for spatial analyses of organism assemblages, contaminant loadings and benthic remineralisation processes.

Contaminants

Illustration

Cfree PCB 153 in Pore water

Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW)

The freely dissolved concentration of PCB 153 in sediment pore water in the EEZ and the Wadden Sea is illustrated in this map. Concentrations were measured in 35 sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 395 (n=6), Atair 209 (n=4), Heincke 422 (n=9), Atair 219 (n=5) and the Wadden Sea campaign (n=11). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the chlorinated hydrocarbon hexachlorobenzol. Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Pyrene (PYR) in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the PAH Pyren. Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Cfree Fluoranthene in Pore Water

Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW)

The freely dissolved concentration of fluoranthene in sediment pore water in the EEZ and the Wadden Sea is illustrated in this map. Concentrations were measured in 35 sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 395 (n=6), Atair 209 (n=4), Heincke 422 (n=9), Atair 219 (n=5) and the Wadden Sea campaign (n=11). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Lead [Pb] Concentration

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Lead (Pb) distribution in the German Bight measured in surface sediment samples obtained during different NOAH expeditions and as part of BSH routine monitoring campaigns in2013 and 2014. The map was generated after data compilation of HZG and BSH data by interpolation using universal Co-Kriging with auxiliary variable TOC (< 20µm fraction). Pb is a non essential element with relatively low acute toxicity, however the uptake of smallest amounts over extended time periods causes chronic intoxication (e.g. inhibition of important enzyms, damage of the nervous system etc.) due to its long half-life period in biological systems.

Illustration

Hexachlorobiphenyl (CB153) in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the polychlorinated biphenyl 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (CB153). Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Benz[ghi]perylene (BghiP) in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the PAHBenz[ghi]perylen. Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Indeno[1,2,3]-pyrene in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the PAH Indeno[1,2,3]-pyren (I123P). Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Dichlorodiphenyldichlorethene (pp-DDE)

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the insecticide dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (pp-DDE). Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

ppDDD (1,1-Dichlor-2,2-bis-(p-chlorphenyl)ethane)

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the chlorinated hydrocarbon 1,1-Dichlor-2,2-bis-(p-chlorphenyl)ethan(pp-DDD). Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Cfree Pyrene in Pore Water

Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW)

The freely dissolved concentration of pyrene in sediment pore water in the EEZ and the Wadden Sea is illustrated in this map. Concentrations were measured in 35 sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 395 (n=6), Atair 209 (n=4), Heincke 422 (n=9), Atair 219 (n=5) and the Wadden Sea campaign (n=11). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Cfree Benzo[ghi]perylene in Pore Water

Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW)

The freely dissolved concentration of benzo[ghi]perylene in sediment pore water in the EEZ and the Wadden Sea is illustrated in this map. Concentrations were measured in 35 sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 395 (n=6), Atair 209 (n=4), Heincke 422 (n=9), Atair 219 (n=5) and the Wadden Sea campaign (n=11). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Trichlorobiphenyl (CB28) in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the polychlorinated biphenyl 2,4,4'-Trichlorobiphenyl (Cb28). Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Fluoranthene Concentration in Sediment

Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrography (BSH)

The load of organic pollution in sediments in the German EEZ of the North Sea in 2014 is exemplary demonstrated here for the PAH fluoranthene. Pollutant concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 422 (n=9) and Atair 219 (n=13). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Illustration

Cfree PCB 28 in Pore water

Hamburg University of Applied Science (HAW)

The freely dissolved concentration of PCB 28 in sediment pore water in the EEZ and the Wadden Sea is illustrated in this map. Concentrations were measured in 35 sediment samples from the research cruises of Heincke 395 (n=6), Atair 209 (n=4), Heincke 422 (n=9), Atair 219 (n=5) and the Wadden Sea campaign (n=11). The spatial distribution was estimated by cokriging with the sediment mud content as co-variable using the Geostatistical Analyst (ArcGIS).

Oceanography

Illustration

Salinity above Bottom

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

The salinity of the North Sea is influenced by the large volume of freshwater entering from major European rivers. In coastal areas the salinity is typically between 32 and 34.5.

Illustration

Shear Stress by Current

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Spatial distribution of the bed shear stress in the North Sea as induced by currents for the year 2006. Data represent annual average values calculated from hourly current data produced with the TRIM model. Bed shear-stress is an important quantity for sediment transport and has a potential effect on benthic faunal distributions.

Illustration

Bedload Transport Frequency 1984- 2014

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Map showing the frequency of bedload transport events in the North Sea from 1984 till 2014. Values are a function of median grain size and model estimates of current and wave-induced bed shear stress. The data were calculated to provide information on sediment mobility, resuspension and transport for habitat mapping and biogeochemical modelling.

Illustration

Bathymetry southern North Sea

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

These data were collected for the development of a regional 3D hydrodynamic model of the North Sea (TRIM). The goal was to provide a standard description of bathymetry for long-term climate reconstructions. Present-day changes in the bathymetry of the North Sea are restricted to movements of large sand bars the deposition of suspended sediments in local depressions.

Illustration

Shear Stress by wave

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Spatial distribution of the bed shear stress in 2006 as induced by the dominating waves regime in the North Sea. Data represent annual average values calculated from hourly wave data produced with the WAM model. Bed shear-stress is an important quantity for sediment transport and has a potential effect on benthic faunal distributions.

Illustration

Temperature above Bottom

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

Annual average bottom water temperature was calculated for the period 2006 from results of the TRIM model for the North Sea. Information on temporal and spatial variability in temperature is important with respect to species distribution and habitat suitability modelling.

Illustration

Maximum Shear Stress 2010-2014

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG)

The map shows the spatial distribution of time-averaged maximum bed shear stress generated by the combined action of waves and currents in the southern North Sea. The current data were calculated by the TRIM model. The wave data were calculated by the WAM model. The time-averaging period is over the years 2010 to 2014.